University of Toronto scored a “D+” on the University Global Health Impact Guide. Learn why and see how other schools compare.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

University of Toronto

Total

Grand Total Score: 29.00 (out of XXX?) Grand Total Grade: D+

Innovation

Total Score: 5.00
Grade: F

Neglected Disease Research

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Why does this matter?

As nonprofit, social-good institutions conducting publicly-funded research, universities can and should be researching diseases that primarily affect the world's poor and are neglected by for-profit medical research.

Where does the data come from?

G-Finder Report database (2010); US National Institutes of Health RePORTER database (2010); Canadian Institutes for Health Research Funded Research database (2010)

How can universities improve?

Work toward goal of 10% of health research resources directed to neglected diseases. More grants aren't the only way; universities can also recruit more faculty and students who specialize in these diseases, ensure they receive adequate training and support, and urge funders to increase overall investment in this area.

Q

What percentage of the university’s total 2010 medical research funding was devoted to projects focused on neglected diseases?

A
0.81%
5 (out of 25)
?

Why does this matter?

Building future capacity to research and treat neglected diseases is also critical to expanding a university’s global health impact. This includes new research facilities, infrastructure, and training programs focused specifically on these diseases.

Where does the data come from?

US N.I.H. RePORTER database (2010 - search narrowed to research center, institutional training and construction grants, then screened for neglected disease relevance as defined by G-Finder Report)

How can universities improve?

Invest in projects that build the university's neglected disease research capacity, such as new research facilities or training programs.

Q

What percentage of the university’s 2010 funding for medical research capacity-building (such as infrastructure improvements or training programs) was devoted to building capacity specifically for neglected disease research?

A
Excluded (U.S.-specific metric)
N/A (out of 10)

Dedicated Research Centers

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Why does this matter?

Having a major lab, center or other facility focused specifically on neglected disease research demonstrates a strong university commitment to closing the research gap for these diseases.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to universities verified/supplemented by Web search of public data

How can universities improve?

Establish a major center or initiative focused specifically on researching neglected diseases and neglected global health needs.

Q

Does the university have a research center or institute dedicated specifically to neglected diseases?

A
No response
0 (out of 5)

Access

Total Score: 4.00
Grade: F

Commitment to Health Access

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Why does this matter?

Even when university research leads to a major medical innovation, there's no guarantee it will reach people in developing countries. Universities often license their innovations to pharmaceutical companies that charge high prices for the final products. But universities can adopt socially responsible licensing policies that make those products more affordable in poorer countries.

Where does the data come from?

Public records of university endorsement of global access licensing principles, such as the “Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies”

How can universities improve?

Adopt a public commitment to socially responsible or “global access” licensing for university medical innovations. The strongest commitments are detailed, specific, and prioritize licenses that enable low-price generic versions of new treatments in developing countries.

Q

Has the university officially and publicly committed to licensing its medical discoveries in ways that promote access and affordability in developing countries?

A
The university has made no official public commitment to access licensing.
2.5 (out of 12.5)

Transparency

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Why does this matter?

Everyone has a stake in university health research - patients, medical professionals, and the public that funds much of this work. Universities should disclose whether they use socially responsible licenses that promote affordability and access for all.

Where does the data come from?

Systematic appraisal of university technology transfer websites

How can universities improve?

Disclose information about socially responsible licensing commitments and practices on the website of the university's technology transfer office.

Q

Does the website of the university's technology transfer office make an effort to disclose, explain and promote access licensing commitments and practices?

A
The website makes no reference to promoting global access through socially responsible licensing.
0.5 (out of 2.5)

Non-exclusive Licensing

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Why does this matter?

When universities share their research innovations under open or “non-exclusive” licenses, no single company gets a monopoly. Instead, many developers can license the innovation and work collaboratively or competitively to bring it to market, lowering the cost of drug development and the price of the final product.

Where does the data come from?

Part A: Association of University Technology Managers Licensing Activity Survey (2011); Part B: Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Prioritize open, non-exclusive licensing of university technologies to promote competitive development and affordable end products.

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s total research licenses were non-exclusive?

A
1-10%
1 (out of 5)
Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s health technology licenses were non-exclusive?

A
No response
0 (out of 5)

Developing World Patents

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Why does this matter?

When a medical research innovation is patented in a certain country, no one there is allowed develop products from it without a license from the patent holder. Patents in developing countries may block locally-produced, affordable versions of new medicines.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Refrain from seeking patents or “file and abandon” patents in low- and middle-income countries, leaving generic drug makers there free to produce low-cost versions of medicines developed from the university's research.

Q

In the past year, for what percentage of all health technologies did the university seek patents in developing countries where they may restrict access?

Q

Upper-Middle Income Countries

A
No response
0 (out of 2.5)
Q

Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries

A
No response
0 (out of 2.5)

Access to Innovations

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Why does this matter?

Drug companies often pay universities for an “exclusive license” that gives them monopoly rights over a university medical innovation. This can lead to very expensive end products - but universities can include “global access” licensing provisions to make the resulting medicines affordable in developing countries.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Include global access provisions in 100% of exclusive licenses for university technologies. A list of sample provisions is available here

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s exclusive licenses of health technologies included provisions to promote access to those technologies in developing countries?

A
No response
0 (out of 5)
Q

What percentage of those access provisions included the biggest developing-world economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China or South Africa) in their scope?

A
No response
0 (out of 2.5)

Best Practice Sharing

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Why does this matter?

Universities face common challenges in seeking to license medical technologies in globally accessible ways. Collaboration is essential to success.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Share best practices and know-how through events, publications, trainings and interactions.

Q

Has the university shared its best practices for promoting access to health technologies through licensing?

A
No response
0 (out of 2.5)

Empowerment

Total Score: 20.00
Grade: A

Global Health Programs

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Why does this matter?

Emerging leaders in medicine, law and related fields must have the opportunity to learn about the pressing challenges in global health, neglected disease research and access to medicines.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university medical school, law school, and public health school administrators, supplemented by Web search of publicly-available data

How can universities improve?

Offer dedicated global health centers, programs, majors and/or study tracks in medical, law and public health schools.

Q

Does the university offer a global health center, program or study track with a substantial global health emphasis?

A
Yes
5 (out of 5)

International Health Grants

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Why does this matter?

The NIH’s Fogarty International Center provides grants for global health-focused research, education and training programs. Receipt of these grants is a strong indicator of a university's commitment in these areas.

Where does the data come from?

US National Instititutes of Health RePORTER database (2010 - narrowed to Fogarty grants)

How can universities improve?

Seek increased Fogarty International Center funding by developing innovative and effective global health initiatives.

Q

What percentage of the university’s total 2010 NIH funding came from Fogarty International Center grants for global health research, training and collaborations?

A
Excluded (U.S.-specific metric)
N/A (out of 5)

Access Education

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Why does this matter?

Effective global health programs focus not only on challenges in developing countries, but educate students about universities' role in promoting access to medicines through socially responsible research and licensing.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university medical school, law school, and public health school administrators, supplemented by review of online course catalog data

How can universities improve?

Provide courses on the role of unviersity patenting, licensing and technology transfer in global health, and how these policies impact global pricing and accessibility of medical innovations.

Q

Does the university offer graduate courses that address the impact of intellectual property policies on global access to medical innovations?

A
Yes
5 (out of 5)

Neglected Disease Education

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Why does this matter?

One of the most straightforward ways to close the gap in neglected disease research is by educating and empowering young doctors and researchers to focus in this area.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university medical school, law school, and public health school administrators, supplemented by review of online course catalog data

How can universities improve?

Provide courses that specifically educate students about the burden of neglected diseases and the need for increased research.

Q

Does the university offer graduate courses that address the prevalence of and lack of research on neglected diseases?

A
Yes
5 (out of 5)

Conferences and Events

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Why does this matter?

Sponsorship of events focused specifically on universities' role in global health research is another important way to foster student understanding and interest in this area.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university medical school, law school, and public health school administrators

How can universities improve?

Host or sponsor conferences, symposia and other campus events that focus specifically on neglected disease research, licensing for global health, and the global health impact of universities.

Q

Has the university recently hosted a major conference, symposium or campus-wide event on the topics of 1) impact of intellectual property on global access to medicines or 2) neglected diseases and health needs of developing countries?

A
Yes, events on both global health access and innovation
5 (out of 5)